Shutdown planning is uniquely challenging. It is considerably more problematic than routine running maintenance and more difficult than capital project planning. Because of the absolute need to keep business disruption to a minimum, shutdown durations are extremely short compared with other ‘time bound’ projects. The compressed time ‘allowed’ by management generally demands high manning intensity, which in turn dictates unconventional work patterns - overtime and shift work being the norm rather than the exception. In addition to these manning challenges, material deliveries are almost invariably critical, with every item having the potential to cause the shutdown completion date to slip.